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Non-Destructive Test (NDT)

Non-Destructive Test, also knows as NDT is a testing and analysis technique used by industry to evaluate the properties of a material, component, structure or system for characteristic differences or welding defects and discontinuities without causing damage to the original part. NDT also known as non-destructive examination (NDE), non-destructive inspection (NDI) and non-destructive evaluation (NDE). NDT consist several kind of testing in which refers to its application in engineering fields which described below.

Acoustic Emission Testing (AE)

Acoustic Emission Testing (AET) is a nondestructive testing (NDT) method that is based on the generation of waves produced by a sudden redistribution of stress in a material. When a piece of equipment is subjected to an external stimulus, such as a change in pressure, load, or temperature, this triggers the release of energy in the form of stress waves, which propagate to the surface and are recorded by sensors. Acoustic emissions can come from natural sources, such as earthquakes or rock bursts, or from the equipment itself such as melting, twinning, and phase transformations in metals. Detection and analysis of AE signals can provide information on the origin and importance of discontinuities in a material

Electromagnetic Testing (ET)

Electromagnetic testing (ET), as a form of nondestructive testing, is the process of inducing electric currents or magnetic fields or both inside a test object and observing the electromagnetic response. If the test is set up properly, a defect inside the test object creates a measurable response

Magnetic Particle Testing (MT)

Magnetic Particle Testing (MT) uses magnetic fields to find discontinuities at or near the surface of ferromagnetic materials. The magnetic field can be created with a permanent magnet or an electromagnet, which requires a current to be applied. The magnetic field will highlight any discontinuities as the magnetic flux lines produce leakage, which can be seen by using magnetic particles that are drawn into the discontinuity.

Liquid Penetrant Testing (PT)

Liquid penetrant (testing involves the application of a fluid with low viscosity to the material to be tested. This fluid seeps into any defects such as cracks or porosity before a developer is applied which allows the penetrant liquid to seep upwards and create a visible indication of the flaw. Liquid penetrant tests can be conducted using solvent removable penetrants, water washable penetrants or post-emulsifiable penetrants.

Ultrasonic Testing (UT)

Ultrasonic testing (UT) is a family of non-destructive testing techniques based on the propagation of ultrasonic waves in the object or material tested. In most common UT applications, very short ultrasonic pulse waves with center frequencies ranging from 0.1-15 MHz, and occasionally up to 50 MHz, are transmitted into materials to detect internal flaws or to characterize materials. A common example is ultrasonic thickness measurement, which tests the thickness of the test object, for example, to monitor pipework corrosion